مسأله شر صورتبندیهای مختلفی دارد که یکی از آنها مسأله وجودی شر نام دارد؛ به این معنا که وقتی شرها و رنجهای دنیا به صورت بالفعل دامنگیر انسان میشوند، آدمی از نظر روانی قادر نیست به رابطة سابق خود با خدا ادامه دهد و عواطف او از خدا رنجیده میشود. در چنین حالتی، اولویت انسان رفع تناقض منطقی میان وجود شر و وجود خدا نیست، بلکه نیازمند پاسخی است که این رابطه را ترمیم کند.
مدعای مقاله حاضر این است که پاسخهای دینی بهتر میتوانند جوابگوی مسأله وجودی شر باشند و رابطه فرد با خدا را ترمیم کنند یا حداقل مانع از انقطاع کامل ارتباط او با خدا شوند. منظور از پاسخ دینی پاسخی است که اولا، مأخوذ ار متون دینی باشد؛ ثانیا، بر پیشفرضهای جهانشناختی، انسانشناختی و خداشناختی مورد قبول ادیان بنا شده باشد. هشت پاسخ دینی به مسأله وجودی در این مقاله عبارتند از: بلا برای آزمایش، شرپنداری از سر ناآگاهی و علم ناقص، هشدار برای بازگشت و توبه، سختی مانعی برای طغیان و سرکشی، مکافات عمل در دنیا، اعراض از دنیا و اشتغال به آخرت، جبران اخروی در عوض رنج دنیوی، شر برای شکوفایی.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Religious Answers to the Existential Problem of Evil
Religious Answers to the Existential Problem of Evil
The problem of evil has different formulations, one of which is called the existential problem of evil; this means that when the evils and sufferings of the world actually affect man, man is psychologically unable to continue his former relationship with God and it seems that his emotions are not contended with God. In such a case, man's priority is not to resolve the logical contradiction between the existence of evil and the existence of God but requires an answer that repairs this relationship.
The present article argues that religious answers can better resolve the existential problem of evil and repair a person's relationship with God, or at least prevent the complete severance of his relationship with God. The religious answer means an answer that is first of all derived from religious texts; second, it is based on the cosmological, anthropological, and theological presuppositions accepted by religions. The eight religious answers to the existential problem of evil in this article are: calamity for trial, illusion of evil due to ignorance and imperfect knowledge, warning for return and repentance, difficulties in preventing rebellion, retribution for actions in this world, abandonment of this world and engagement in the hereafter, compensation in hereinafter for worldly suffering, and evil for flourishing.
The problem of evil, The Existential Problem of Evil, Religion and Evil, Religious Answers to Problem of Evil
The problem of evil is one of the old and difficult problems in theology and philosophy, which is still discussed and disputed. Although the problem of evil is not only the problem of the theists, it is considered one of the most serious arguments against theism today. The problem of evil in our time is usually formulated in three ways: 1- The logical problem of evil 2- The relative problem of evil 3- The existence problem of evil. According to the origin of the answers - the answers to the problem of evil can be divided into three categories: 1- Philosophical answers 2- Psychological answers 3- Religious answers
The religious answer is the answer that is explicitly or implicitly stated in the sacred religious texts (in the case of Islam: the Holy Quran and the Sunnah) and is based on accepted cosmological, anthropological, and theological presuppositions of religion. Therefore, calling these answers religious does not mean that these answers are only based on religious texts, but the rational, psychological, and moral reflections of humans may also lead to some of these answers. Therefore, the religiousness of the answers does not mean that they are irrational.
The subject of this article is such that it is expected that many articles have been written in this direction. But as far as I have searched in detail, this issue has not been investigated independently and in detail. Of course, there have been references to this discussion in various research that these research records can be classified as follows:
In some books or articles that have investigated the issue of divine justice, some of these answers have been briefly mentioned.
In some articles that have reviewed the answers to the problem of evil in a general and general way, some religious answers have been mentioned in a very comprehensive way and with minimal mention of evidence.
In the articles that have examined the issue of evil from the point of view of Muslim theologians, they have mentioned some of these answers (with minimal mention of narrative or Quranic evidence). But their central topic has been to examine the views of theologians about the rule of mercy and justice.
To examine religion's response to the existential problem of evil, three forms of the famous problem of evil have been mentioned. Then, by searching and reflecting on verses and traditions, religious answers are categorized into eight answers. In each answer, first the Quranic evidence and then the narrative evidence has been presented. The method of this article is based on library study. In this way, in the first step, the propositions in the religious texts that were related to the issue in question were classified descriptively. In the second step, it has been tried to analyze the persuasiveness of these propositions in response to the existential problem of evil.
Religious answers to the problem of evil can be answers to the logical problem of evil and to the relative problem of evil and to the existential problem of evil. Religious answers, compared to philosophical answers, can better answer the existential problem of evil and restore a person's relationship with God or at least prevent the complete disconnection of the relationship with God. Rather than having a philosophical concern and an answer to the logical problem of evil, religious answers have an existentialist approach. For this purpose, they take the first step by accepting the existence of suffering in the world. Quran and hadiths accept the existence of suffering.
Besides the direct answers to the problem of evil, religion offers its followers a worldview that works in line with the persuasiveness of religious answers. In this worldview, first of all, many examples of evil are not unavoidable and a person's life can turn out in a different way. In response to a believer's prayer, God may remove the suffering and calamity from him. That is, in his worldview, there is hope to get rid of suffering, and this hope itself makes it possible to endure suffering. Secondly, the foundation of the world is on mercy and forgiveness, and what happens to man from hardships and calamities is much less than what the servant deserved due to his shortcomings and sins. Also, the blessings given to man are much more than what he deserves.
Conclusions and discussions
Religious answers can better answer the existential problem of evil that is, they can maintain the religious person's trust and hope in God and make it easier to bear the suffering, for such answers raise the issue of evil less as a mental and philosophical issue, but rather have an existential approach. Another reason that makes religious answers more robust in making the sufferings of the world more bearable for us is that these answers are easy to understand and based on objective life experiences. It means that people have communicated with most of these answers in real life.
Religious texts, in response to the problem of evil, are not satisfied with one answer, but have offered various answers. In the text of the article, eight answers have been examined in detail. These answers are: 1-suffering for trial; 2- Limitation of human cognitive abilities 3- warning to return and repentance 4- Difficulty is an obstacle for rebellion 5- Punishment for actions in the world 6 Attention to the hereafter 7- Afterlife compensation instead of worldly suffering; 8- Evil for prosperity.
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